Breeding meadow bromegrass for forage characteristics under a linesource irrigation design. Brome grasses have larger seed size than other grasses so attention to drill calibration is important. Smooth bromegrass is very responsive to n fertilization and requires a high level of fertility for maximum production. Seed yields of well managed brome range from 300 to 1,000 pounds per acre. Meadow bromegrass can extend the grazing season as well as increase total forage production. Production from less productive lands limited by irrigation can be increased if genetically improved pasture grasses are developed with increased dry matter production dmy and nutritional quality. Seed is harvested when the stem just below the head has matured. When smooth brome is seeded in a mixture with alfalfa, the alternate row method will give the best results. Introduced to the united states from turkey in 1949.
It is excellent forage for big game animals and waterfowl particularly geese, and can be used in. Other publications seed production and management for bromegrass and tall fescue mf394. This grass can extend the prime grazing season as well as increase total forage production, and is very compatible with alfalfa. Drilling ensures uniform seed distribution, accurate seeding rates, and uniform depth of coverage. Meadow brome does not flow uniformly through a drill unless it is diluted with rice hulls or other dilutent. After the wheat is taken for hay or grain, the brome is usually established, provided sufficient moisture is available for both crops. Meadow brome seed should be treated with a labeled fungicide if planting is intended for seed production to avoid head smut problems. Meadow bromegrass is a hardy, longlived, highyielding, cool season perennial grass. Meadow brome is very compatible with legumes such as alfalfa, cicer milkvetch, birdsfoot trefoil, sainfoin, and clover species ogle, et al. This dual use maximizes the total crop, even though seed yields are.
Meadow bromegrass is a perennial, cool season forage grass. Rachilla the point of attachment of a seed to the seed head or to another seed. While examining the spikelet and panicle will help identify soft brome see table below, mature seed shape is key in. Very common in field margins and hedgerows as well as within arable fields. This is a slow establishment method, but it is desirable on soils subject to erosion or to obtain a. Summer uno tutt production of meadow bromegrass mixtures was 18 to 53%o and 40 to.
Drilling smooth brome seed is the preferred method of seeding. Forage yields in meadow brome are higher than smooth brome. Managing grassy weeds in a grass pasture or hay meadow. Seed should be drilled or broadcast into a weed free, firm seedbed. Primarily used for grazing, it has consistent, high yields throughout the growing season which makes it a very popular choice for hay, haylage, or pasture production. When planting with legumes, alternate row planting is recommended due to differences in seedling vigor. It is much less aggressive than smooth brome and less likely to become sod bound. Meadow bromegrass has fibrous roots and short rhizomes which spread slowly. Others exhibit an indeterminate seeding habit and persist through frequently dropped seed. Forage yields in meadow brome are higher than smooth brome, it recovers from grazing much more rapidly, and its fall regrowth is better. The brome genus is a large family of many varied grasses. Seed production seed production fields should be soil tested before planting to determine soil nutrient levels and fertilizer needs. Meadow brome seed and plant description scientific name. Meadow bromegrass is a longlived perennial that is suited for dryland or irrigated pasture.
Selection cache meadow brome was developed by the usdaars, forage and range research laboratory at utah state university, logan, utah, and was released in 2004 with plant variety protection pvp. Seed meadow brome and meadow fescue are species that have shown tremendous production under tough growing conditions and varying soil types. For optimum seed production, it is important to irrigate often enough to promote uninterrupted plant growth. Meadow brome meadow bromegrass is an introduced, long lived cool season perennial. Sheath the part of the leaf that wraps around the main stem. We primarily have either meadow brome or smooth brome. More information coming soon, please contact us for more details. Seed production by annual weeds is crucially important to their survival. Meadow bromegrass brettyoung brettyoung seed production. Then, with the onslaught of timely and abundant rainfall across production areas throughout alberta, a bumper crop was expected, and achieved. The growth patterns of brome grasses, in general, do well when planted as a companion with alfalfa. Bromes will persist if allowed to go to seed once every season.
This occurs because, as plants get larger and more stemmy, a greater. Some species are extremely winterhardy and persistent. Seed production of meadow bromegrass saskatchewan forage. Silver top is caused from damage to the seed stalk after panicle emergence but before seed development.
Total forage hay yield similar to smooth brome, higher than meadow brome regrowth after cutting is better than smooth brome, not as much as meadow brome demonstrates lower adf and ndf than both smooth and meadow brome in the vegetative stage for improved pasture quality northstar seed toll free neepawa, mb 18004305955 calgary, ab. This grass grows 1 to 4 feet tall, with very long, narrow basal leaves and a bunchy, leafy habit. Jul 17, 2017 plant bromegrass from seed using the drilling method and a seed drill or slit seeder. Breeding meadow bromegrass for forage characteristics. Brome seed should be harvested on days when the relative humidity is below 50 percent, and harvested seed should be turned and stirred daily to ensure that heating does not. Seedings should be drilled at a depth of 12 to 34 inch.
However, seed production is limited and supplies are often short. Forage production and selection for vigor in meadow and. If you plant smooth bromegrass with alfalfa or another legume, restrict n applications to 40 or 50 lb per acre to limit the effect n has on reducing nitrogen fixation of the legume. Alaska brome best forage forage seed, corn hybrids. Meadow bromegrass meadow bromegrass bromus riparius a perennial grass introduced from southeast asia. Broadcasting brome on the surface with shallow incorporation can result in good stands of brome. Page 2 seed yield summary in terms of meadow brome at the fort st john site there were no significant differences in total seed yield between the meadow brome check variety, fleet, and all other meadow brome test varieties at both data collection sites. For seed production plantings under irrigation, seed in rows 30 to 42 inches apart at a rate of 3 to 4 pounds per acre. Performance of a grass crop established from common seed may not equal that of a named variety reported in university. Adaptation meadow bromegrass is adapted to the same soils and climatic conditions and will grow well wherever smooth bromegrass does well. Meadow brome and orchardgrass are more heat tolerant than smooth brome and garrison creeping foxtail.
Seed yield of bromegrass varieties grown in the peace. Other grasses have their own niche markets, such as forage kentucky bluegrass, smooth brome, various wheatgrasses, and others. The seed stalks are erect with the seed in an open panicle. Brome seed should be harvested on days when the relative humidity is below 50 percent, and harvested seed should be turned and stirred daily to ensure that heating does not occur. Like smooth bromegrass, it is also adapted to slightlyacid to mildlyalkaline soils and has produced good. Grazing pressure can reduce seed production and reduce further spread of crabgrass.
Meadow bromegrass bromus riparius rehmann is an important forage crop in canada and the intermountain west, but it has not been extensively evaluated in the northern great plains ngp. Meadow bromegrass crested wheatgrass and meadow bromegrass. Seed of the above first six lines was sent to saskatoon and planted in isolated seed increases in 2008. It is no less important in perennial species where seed production as a consequence of sexual reproduction is important for the reassortment of genes and creation of new biological variability.
Seed shatter is also a common seed production problem that can be avoided by windrowing the field, curing seed in the swath for 57 days, and then combining the seed. Meadow brome is one of the best forage grasses for intensive rotational grazing systems. Bromegrasses, in general, do well when planted as a companion with alfalfa. Forage seed production factsheet for intermediate wheatgrass. Smooth bromegrass bromus inermis is a longlived perennial, sodforming grass introduced into the united. Meadow bromegrass seed quotes have also fallen, but not as dramatically as smooth. Proper row culture cultivation and ripping may help to extend the stands productive life. Use 6 to 8 pounds pls of meadow brome seed per acre when planting in alternate rows with a.
Introduction meadow bromegrass, bromus riparius rehm. The primary use of meadow brome is for forage production ogle, et al. In 2009, an additional sward density trial was established at saskatoon and forage yield was determined from 20102012. Registration of cache meadow bromegrass request pdf. Causes of silvertop include insects or fungi that damage the seed stalk. These are alternative crops for most producers because the stands are also used for grazing and hay. Grass seed production field irrigation furrow irrigation by gravity flow is the best method for irrigating seed production fields.
Soil test bromegrass pastures and meadows during july. In 2009, an additional sward density trial was established at saskatoon and. Seed production management for bromegrass and tall fescue kansas produces up to 12 million pounds of high quality tall fescue and 6 million pounds of bromegrass seed per year. C402 smooth brome production and utilization ksre bookstore.
Meadow bromegrass can also be used in upland bird and wildlife plantings because it serves as excellent forage for larger game animals and waterfowl. Timothy seed prices have managed to recover following last years crash in prices. Also, smooth bromegrass should never be cut below a height of four inches or its regrowth potential will be greatly reduced. It is highly palatable and widely used for hay, pasture and forage production. How to identify different brome species farmers weekly.
Seed longevity is only a few years and germination rates are usually high. Regar meadow brome seed production fields are only productive for about two to three seed crops and seed production beyond 23 years are normally not economical. Pdf meadow bromegrass legume mixtures for diversified. Mf924 seed production management for bromegrass and tall fescue. Bromegrasses require high fertility levels and well drained soils. If the hay meadow happens to be fenced as well as have a source of water, grazing can be an excellent way to utilize the highquality crabgrass forage as well as remove it from the meadow. More commonly found in grassland situations, especially old pastures. Seeds are similar in appearance to smooth brome grass seeds but. Plant guide for timothy phleum pratense usda plants. Uses the primary use of meadow brome is for forage production ogle, et al. Breeding meadow bromegrass for forage characteristics under a. Go over the soil after you sow bromegrass seeds and cover any exposed seeds with soil.
Forage seed production factsheet for intermediate wheatgrass, crested wheatgrass and meadow bromegrass. The 5050% mixture of meadow bromegrass with alfalfa, 502525% mixture of. Meadow brome and orchardgrass are more heat tolerant than smooth brome and garrison creeping foxtail and help capacity during warm summer months. Prices which were at historical highs fell quickly. Meadow brome 10 charlottetown meadow brome 10 charlottetown hybrid brome 10 saskatoon meadow brome 15 saskatoon hybrid brome 10 stefoy meadow brome 37 includes 6 hybrid brookings to be harvested. It regrows very quickly after grazing, even late in the season. Bromus commutatus meadow brome mainly recorded in the southern half of england. Identifying pasture grasses dan undersander, michael casler, and dennis cosgroveg rasses are the base of midwestern pastures. Grazing tolerant alfalfa 2 to 4 seed mixture is designed to provide season long production. This plant growth regulator pgr shortens internodes which reduces lodging and allows for better pollination, seed set and. The primary use of meadow brome is for forage production. It is native to southeastern europe and central asia. Trinexapacethyl is commonly used on grass seed crops in oregon, denmark and new zealand to improve harvestability and seed yields. Soil fertility in addition to the above, the fertility of the soil should be carefully considered before planting a forage crop.
It is highly palatable to all classes of livestock and wildlife. Ask your northstar seed sales agronomist for the full story behind cache brand meadow brome. A very coldtolerant, longlived perennial, meadow brome provides very good forage quality and is probably underused in the forage industry. For applications that combine haying and grazing, orchardgrass, meadow brome, and tall fescue are more suitable dualpurpose species. Sprinkler irrigation is also effective but may result in higher incidence of disease and lodging problems. The mix yields excellent quality forage that is highly palatable. As the wheat is drilled, the brome seed is covered.
Parts of a grass plant 4 pasture grasses 5 crosssection of a shoot showing unemerged leaves culm collar rachilla ligule seed awn sheath node glume internode auricle node overlapping left and fused. Meadow brome is a longlived perennial, coolseason bunch grass with short rhizomes that is native to southeast asia. This will provide an accurate picture of the nutrients available. Regar meadow brome seed production fields are only. A seeding rate of 10 pounds per acre is recommended, if broadcasting, seed at 20 pounds per acre. This factsheet is intended as a condensed guide to pedigreed forage grass seed production in saskatchewan for intermediate wheatgrass, crested wheatgrass and meadow bromegrass. The grasslegume seed industry in the peace river region. Smooth bromegrass seed should be harvested when the culm, or stem just below the seed head, has matured and dried out, ideally on a day when the humidity is less than 50 percent. Valuable species to create special use pastures that can withstand heavy use. Smooth brome spreads nicely and after a few years you can wind up with a field that is like a carpet or a lawn. Downy brome has become an important early, but very short season forage in the intermountain west and grazing can prevent seed production if plants are grazed early.
Meadow brome is compatible with legumes and other grass species. Pdf meadow bromegrass legume mixtures for diversified and. Our objectives were to 1 evaluate meadow, smooth, and hybrid bromegrasses for forage production under intensive management in eastern south dakota, and 2 evaluate the effect of selection for vigor in. Management of coolseason grasses for hay production and quality steven c. S9549 was seeded in a four replicated sward density forage production trial at saskatoon in 2008, and yields were determined from 2009 to 2011. Bromegrass requires high fertility levels and welldrained soils. Effects trinexapacethyl te on established meadow bromegrass seed crop.
Plant your seeds 14 inch to 12 inch deep in the soil. Meadow bromegrass is a longlived perennial that is suited for dryland or. In terms of meadow brome at the fort st john site there were no significant differences in total seed yield between the meadow brome check variety. Zerotillage establishment of alfalfa and meadow bromegrass as.1390 1244 1449 110 201 646 864 498 1388 601 744 965 123 1404 481 1302 1626 1118 1366 1094 3 950 1010 1238 1042 78 1121 883 468